HAR DAYAL

Lala Har Dayal (Hindi: लाला हरदयाल, Urdu: لالا ہردیال; October 14, 1884, Delhi, India – March 4, 1939, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a Indian nationalist revolutionary[1] who founded the Ghadar Party in America. He was a polymath who turned down a career in the Indian Civil Service. His simple living and intellectual acumen inspired many expatriate Indians living in Canada and the USA to fight against British Imperialism during the First World War.

Anarchist activism in America

He moved to the United States in 1911, where he became involved in industrial unionism. He had also served as secretary of the San Francisco branch of the Industrial Workers of the World alongside Fritz Wolffheim, later a National Bolshevik (but not while in the IWW). In a statement outlining the principles of the Fraternity of the Red Flag he said they proposed “the establishment of Communism, and the abolition of private property in land and capital through industrial organisation and the general strike, ultimate abolition of the coercive organisation of government”. A little over a year later, this group was given 6 acres (24,000 m2) of land and a house in Oakland, where he founded the Bakunin Institute of California, which he described as “the first monastery of anarchism”.[3] The organisation aligned itself with the Regeneración movement founded by the exiled Mexicans Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón. He had a designated post of a lecturer in Indian philosophy and Sanskrit at Leyland Stanford University. However, he was forced to resign because of embarrassment about his activities in the anarchist movement.

At the time, he was still a vigorous anarchist propagandist and had very little to do with the nationalist Nalanda Club, composed of Indian students. However Basanta Kumar Biswas‘s attempt on the life of the Indian Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, on December 23, 1912 had a major impact upon him. He visited the Nalanda Club Hostel to tell them this news at dinner. He delivered an aplouding lecture and finished his talk with a couplet of the Urdu poet Mir Taqi ‘Mir’ of Delhi (India):

Pagari apani sambhaliyega ‘Mir’ !
Aur basti nahin, ye Dilli hai !!”
“Take care of your turban Mr Mir ! (Note: Here Mir is Quoted for Britishers.)
This is not just any town, this is Delhi, India Okay !!’

The hostel then became a party with dancing and the singing of Vande Mataram. Hardayal excitedly told his anarchist friends of what one of his men had done in India.

He quickly brought out a pamphlet called the Yugantar Circular in which he eulogised about the bombing:

Hail ! Hail ! Hail ! Bomb of 23 December 1912 … Harbinger of hope and courage, dear reawakener of slumbering souls … concentrated moral dynamite … the Esperanto of revolution.

In April 1914, he was arrested by the United States government for spreading anarchist literature and fled to Berlin, Germany. He subsequently lived for a decade in Sweden. He received his Ph. D. degree in 1930 from the School of Oriental and African Studies at theUniversity of London. In 1932, he got his book Hints For Self Culture published and embarked on a lecture circuit covering Europe, India, and the United States.

 

Read the rest of the biography at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Har_Dayal

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